UPDATE Statement

SQL: UPDATE Statement


The UPDATE statement allows you to update a single record or multiple records in a table.
The syntax for the UPDATE statement is:
UPDATE table
SET column = expression
WHERE predicates;


Example #1 - Simple example
Let's take a look at a very simple example.
UPDATE suppliers
SET name = 'HP'
WHERE name = 'IBM';

This statement would update all supplier names in the suppliers table from IBM to HP.

Example #2 - More complex example
You can also perform more complicated updates.
You may wish to update records in one table based on values in another table. Since you can't list more than one table in the UPDATE statement, you can use the EXISTS clause.
For example:
UPDATE suppliers
SET supplier_name = ( SELECT customers.name
FROM customers
WHERE customers.customer_id = suppliers.supplier_id)
WHERE EXISTS
  ( SELECT customers.name
    FROM customers
    WHERE customers.customer_id = suppliers.supplier_id);
Whenever a supplier_id matched a customer_id value, the supplier_name would be overwritten to the customer name from the customers table.
Learn more about the EXISTS condition.

Practice Exercise #1:
Based on the suppliers table populated with the following data, update the city to "Santa Clara" for all records whose supplier_name is "NVIDIA".
CREATE TABLE suppliers
( supplier_id number(10) not null,
  supplier_name varchar2(50) not null,
  city varchar2(50),
  CONSTRAINT suppliers_pk PRIMARY KEY (supplier_id)
);



INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5001, 'Microsoft', 'New York');

INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5002, 'IBM', 'Chicago');

INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5003, 'Red Hat', 'Detroit');

INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5004, 'NVIDIA', 'New York');

Solution:
The following SQL statement would perform this update.
UPDATE suppliers
SET city = 'Santa Clara'
WHERE supplier_name = 'NVIDIA';

The suppliers table would now look like this:
SUPPLIER_ID SUPPLIER_NAME CITY
5001 Microsoft New York
5002 IBM Chicago
5003 Red Hat Detroit
5004 NVIDIA Santa Clara

Practice Exercise #2:
Based on the suppliers and customers table populated with the following data, update the city in the suppliers table with the city in the customers table when the supplier_name in the suppliers table matches the customer_name in the customers table.
CREATE TABLE suppliers
( supplier_id number(10) not null,
  supplier_name varchar2(50) not null,
  city varchar2(50),
  CONSTRAINT suppliers_pk PRIMARY KEY (supplier_id)
);



INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5001, 'Microsoft', 'New York');

INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5002, 'IBM', 'Chicago');

INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5003, 'Red Hat', 'Detroit');

INSERT INTO suppliers (supplier_id, supplier_name, city)
VALUES (5005, 'NVIDIA', 'LA');


CREATE TABLE customers
( customer_id number(10) not null,
  customer_name varchar2(50) not null,
  city varchar2(50),
  CONSTRAINT customers_pk PRIMARY KEY (customer_id)
);



INSERT INTO customers (customer_id, customer_name, city)
VALUES (7001, 'Microsoft', 'San Francisco');

INSERT INTO customers (customer_id, customer_name, city)
VALUES (7002, 'IBM', 'Toronto');

INSERT INTO customers (customer_id, customer_name, city)
VALUES (7003, 'Red Hat', 'Newark');

Solution:
The following SQL statement would perform this update.
UPDATE suppliers
SET city = ( SELECT customers.city
FROM customers
WHERE customers.customer_name = suppliers.supplier_name)
WHERE EXISTS
  ( SELECT customers.city
    FROM customers
    WHERE customers.customer_name = suppliers.supplier_name);
The suppliers table would now look like this:
SUPPLIER_ID SUPPLIER_NAME CITY
5001 Microsoft San Francisco
5002 IBM Toronto
5003 Red Hat Newark
5004 NVIDIA LA

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